Thursday, March 3, 2011

MONTESORI PRINCIPLES (practical activities)

Right now i'm reading 'basic montessori' by david gettman. a really good book if you wanna explore the principles of montessori system.

'the organization of man has 3 parts; brain senses and muscles ' And usually the curriculum is divided into 'sensorial' practical life, 'language' 'math' 'science/geography' 'art/music'

If teaching is to be effective with young children, it must assist them to advance on the way to independence. It must initiate them into those kinds of activities, which they can perform themselves. We must help them to learn how to walk without assistance, to run, to go up and down the stairs, to pick up fallen objects, to dress and undress, to wash themselves, to express their needs, and to attempt to satisfy their desires through their own efforts. All this is part of an education for independence."

- Maria Montessori, The Discovery of the Child

practical activities are the first acctivities the child is introduced in the montessori environment. This is because they can immediately being to satisfy the young child's inner and hitherto frustrated desire for skills and sefl-suffieciency. As in Montessori noticed that children seemed most satisfied by their 'play' when it enabled them to progress in thei specially apointed work.

The purpose and aim of Practical Life is to help the child gain control in the coordination of his movement, and help the child to gain independence and adapt to his society. It is therefore important to “Teach teaching, not correcting” (Montessori) in order to allow the child to be a fully functionional member in hios own society. Practical Life Exercises also aid the growth and development of the child’s intellect and concentration and will in turn also help the child develop an orderly way of thinking.

Exercice Groups

Practical Life Exercises can be categorized into four different groups: Manipulative Skills, Self Development and care of the environment.

Manipulative skils, such as pouring, opening containers, handling books and carrying delicate items, are relatively simple tasks that dults commontly do for a young child for convinience

  • dusting
  • sweeping with a small broom and dust pan
  • washing a table surface
  • cleaning up spills with a sponge
  • mopping the floor
  • preparing food- washing, cutting bread, grating cheese, coring apples, peeling carrots & bananas
  • cooking skills- using an egg beater, using a wire whisk, etc
  • polishing furniture
  • polishing brass objects
  • polishing windows and mirrors
  • ironing (AUGH that scares me!!!)
  • putting dirty clothes in laundry basket
  • washing doll clothes on washboard
  • setting a table
  • folding napkins
  • using knives with good control
  • cracking nuts
  • making a bed
  • washing and drying dishes and utensils
  • stacking dishes and sorting utensils
  • drawing and opening curtains and blinds
  • watering plants
  • arranging flowers in a vase
  • caring for animals
  • putting materials away neatly
  • simple use of needle and thread
  • opening and closing boxes
  • opening and closing lids of jars and biscuit tins
  • opening and closing various types of doors and cupboards
  • pouring beans,rice, etc. between two jugs, pouring water, and pouring water through a funnel
  • sponge transfer activities
  • using a spoon to transfer objects
  • pincer grip activities with tongs, tweezers, turkey baster, eyedroppers, and syringes
  • folding and unfolding clothes
  • lifting, carrying, and putting down a delicate object or liquid
  • 1lifting, carrying, and putting down a tray with objects on it
  • carrying a floor mat
  • unrolling and rolling up a floor mat
  • sitting on the edge of an unrolled floor mat
  • lifting, carrying, and putting down a chair
  • sitting down, getting up, and tucking in a chair at the table
  • using scissors and handing them to someone
  • handling a book
  • handling and playing a CD
  • opening a lock with a key
  • nuts and bolts
  • using stickers, stamps, glue, paintbrushes, markers, play dough, crayons, and other art equipment appropriately
  • threading beads on a necklace
  • sorting
  • puzzles
  • winding and unwinding yarn
  • walking on the line, without knocking into furniture or people
  • dancing without knocking into furniture or people
  • the silence game

Self -Development includes, grace, wich describes how to behave socially and personal care, such as dressing and cleaning oneself

  • 1. washing hands and face
  • 2. blowing nose and throwing tissue away correctly
  • 3. coughing into elbow
  • 4. drying hands with a paper towel and throwing it away
  • 5. care of fingernails, teeth and hair
  • 6. toilet training
  • 7. braiding yarn or ribbon
  • 8. braiding hair
  • 9. dressing frames (buttoning, buckling, lacing, zipper, presss studs, bows) DIY
  • 10. tying a tie
  • 11. putting on clothes, coats, shoes
  • 12. polishing shoes
  • 13. putting clothes in washer and dryer
  • 14. brushing lint from clothes
  • 15. folding clothes
  • 16. folding socks
  • 17. hanging clothes on a hook
  • 18. hanging clothes on a hanger
  • 19. fastening clothes on a line with clothespins
  • 20. saying please and thank you
  • 21. drawing a person's attention before speaking
  • 22. gracefully climbing and descending stairs
  • 23. giving way to others at the doorway
  • 24. asking permission to get past in a small space
  • 25. greeting friends and greeting strangers
  • 26. offering a seat to a visitor
  • 27. offering refreshments to a visitor
  • 28. answering the phone
  • 29. apologizing
  • 30. introduce oneself
  • 31. table manners and using utensils
  • learning address and phone number

Care of environement is a fancy name for house work. The children realise that they are responsible for their own environment, which enhances their respct for other and for themselfs.

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